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From a cosmic perspective, we are all citizens of the one small and lonely planet Earth, and we all face some major global challenges. Some of them may even threaten the future of our civilization, such as climate change and nuclear weapons, to name but two. These critical global problems need global solutions, and we need to work together to find solutions to them. Ideally, we need some form of Earth Federation, empowered to make binding laws and regulations to deal with these global issues. I will trace the history of the world federation concept, and discuss how it might be put into practice. Post-war efforts have always concentrated on reform of the United Nations, only to be stymied by the rigidity of the UN Charter. Meanwhile, Europe has shown the way, with the stage-by-stage evolution of the European Union, and has developed the basic principles upon which the Earth Federation should be based. I will discuss a possible alternative route to the goal, which follows the European example. A detailed discussion of a possible first step is discussed. It is suggested that the North Atlantic Treaty Organization be reformed to accept membership from democratic countries outside the North Atlantic area, to become a World Security Community of democratic nations. It could act as a strong right arm to the Security Council on the world stage. Such a community would form a natural starting point for the evolution over time of a genuine global parliament.
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