Situating human generations in Big History
Big History provides the cosmology for the present work in which the disproportionate impact of inequality on today’s young generation is contextualised by examination of three types of societies, past empires, present capitalism and one pre-colonisation indigenous society, over time periods of more than centuries. Generations are seen as demographically referenced social locations like gender and race and at any one time several interdependent generations exist. Other referents include the work of JS Mill, his controversial ethology project, the history of ideas, the non-identity problem and social anthropology. The article concludes by anticipating a tentative reconstruction of Mill’s ethology based on advances in social science in the century and a half since his time.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
ABS. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2009) ‘From Generation to generation’ in A Picture of the Nation.
ACOSS. Australian Council of Social Service. (2014) Poverty in Australia. http://www.acoss.org.au/images/uploads/ACOSS_Poverty_in_Australia_2014.pdf 18/04/2017.
ACOSS. Australian Council of Social Service. (2015) Inequality in Australia. http://www.acoss.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/Inequality_in_Australia_FINAL.pdf 18/04/2017.
Adamo S. (2003) ‘Social sustainability and social resilience of rural communities in drylands: the case of the Jachal (Argentina) in the 19th and 20th centuries.’ (Unpublished work, quoted with permission) Mellon Foundation. Population Research Centre and Department of Sociology. University of Texas, Austin.
Atkinson A. (1991) Comparing Poverty Rates Internationally: Lessons from Recent Studies in Developed Countries: The World Bank Economic Review 1(1)3-21.
Baker D. (2015) Speaker Profile, Australian Institute of Health Innovation Event, Macquarie University. https://aihi.mq.edu.au/event/big-history-population-and-collective-learning-8 05/12/2015.
Barrett L & Stulp G. (2013) Four More Reasons Why Ethology Matters: Tinbergen and the Human Sciences. Human Ethology Bulletin 28(4)39-49. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Louise_Barrett/publication/259070028_Four_more_reasons_why_ethology_matters_Tinbergen_and_the_human_sciences/links/00463529def3e60eb3000000.pdf 20/04/2017.
Berndt R & Berndt C. (1981) The World of the First Australians. Lansdowne Press, Sydney.
Betzig L. (1989) Rethinking Human Ethology: A Response to Some Recent Critiques. Ethology and Sociobiology (10)315-324 (0162-3095).
Brundtland GH. (1987) Our Common Future. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, United Nations, NY, USA. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0376892900016805
Christian D. (2003) World history in context. Journal of World History 14(4)437-458. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20079239?origin=JSTOR-pdf 03/03/2010.
Christian D. (2011) Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. University of California Press.
Daley J, Wood D, Weidman B & Harrison C. (2014) The wealth of generations. The Grattan Institute, Melbourne, Australia. http://grattan.edu.au/report/the -wealth-of-generations/ 22/07/2016.
Davies N. (1981) Human Sacrifice. William Morrow.
Damasio A. (2003) Looking for Spinoza. Vintage Books, London.
Dobson A. (1999) Fairness and futurity: essays on environmental sustainability and social justice. Oxford University Press.
Dodson M. (2007) ‘Bully in the Playground: A New Stolen Generation’, In Coercive Reconciliation: Stabilise, Normalise, Exit Aboriginal Australia. Altman J & Hinkson M, Eds, Arena, Melbourne, 85-96.
Eibl-Eibesfeldt I. (1989) Human Ethology. Aldine de Gruyter, New York.
Elkin A. (1970) The Australian Aborigines: How to Understand them. Angus & Robertson.
Engineer M, Roth E, & Welling L. (2005) An almost exact overlapping generations model of the Rendille of Northern Kenya. Work in progress, University of Victoria, British Columbia. http://webuvicca/~menginee/mypapers/Exactpdf 01/02/2005.
Figueroa A. (2015) Growth, employment, inequality and the environment: Unity of knowledge in economics. (Two volumes) Palgrave Macmillan, NY USA.
Gammage B. (2012) The Biggest Estate on Earth: How Aborigines made Australia. Allen & Unwin.
Gardner M. (2015) A Harm-Based Solution to the Non-Identity Problem. Ergo: An open access journal of philosophy (2)17. http://dx.doi.org/10.3998/ergo.12405314.0002.017 17/08/2016.
Gillings M, (2017) Class 1 integrons as invasive species. Current Opinion in Microbiology (38)10-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mib.2017.03.002 26/02/2018.
Gillings M, Paulson I & Tetu S. (2015) Ecology and Evolution of the Human Microbiota: Fire, Farming and Antibiotics. Genes (6)841-857. doi:10.3390/genes6030841. http://www.mq.edu.au/newsroom/2015/08/06/antibiotic-pollution-of-waterways-may-create-superbugs-of-tomorrow/#ixzz3tNaxwpnG 05/12/2015.
Goertzel T. (2006) The World Trade Center bombing as a fourth generational turning point http://crabrutgersedu/~goertzel/fourthturninghtm 03/10/2006.
Gordon D & Townsend P. (1990) Measuring the Poverty Line. http://www.radstats.org.uk/no047/gordontownsend.pdf 29/04/2016.
Gosseries A. (2008) On Future Generations’ Future Rights. The Journal of Political Philosophy 16(4)446-474. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9760.2008.00323.x
Gray E, Evans A & Kippen R (2007) Generational differences in Parity Progression: the role of Sex Composition of Children. The Australian Demographic & Research Institute, Working Paper 2. http://adsrianueduau/ 03/12/2008.
Grundy E & Henretta JC. (2006) Between elderly parents and adult children: a new look at the intergenerational care provided by the ‘sandwich generation’. Ageing & Society (26)707-722. doi 10.1007/s10680-006-9005-6.
Gudeman S. (2016) Anthropology and Economy. Cambridge University Press.
Hawking S. (1996) A Brief History of Time. Bantam Books.
Heath R. (2006) Please just F* off: it's our turn now - holding the baby boomers to account. Pluto Press, Australia.
Hedstr?m P & Swedberg R. (2005) Social mechanisms: An analytical approach to social theory. Cambridge University Press.
Henderson R. (1975, April) Poverty in Australia: Commission of Inquiry into Poverty, First Main Report. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
Henderson R, Harcourt A & Harper R. (1970) People in Poverty: A Melbourne Survey. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research [IAESR]. Cheshire Publishing, Melbourne.
Herstein O. (2008) Historic Injustice, Group Membership and Harm to Individuals: Defending Claims for Historic Justice from the Non-Identity Problem. Columbia Public Law & Legal Theory Working Papers, Paper 08150. http://lsr.nellco.org/columbia_pllt/08150 17/12/2016.
Hinde R. (1982) Ethology: Its Nature and Relations with Other Sciences. Oxford University Press.
International Big History Association. http://www.ibhanet.org/ 05/12/2015.
International Society for Applied Ethology. www.applied-ethology.org 06/10/2016.
International Society for Human Ethology. http://ishe.roundtablelive.org/ 06/10/2016.
Jaeger H. (1985) Generations in History: Reflections on a Controversial Concept. History and Theory 24(3)273-292. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2505170 26/11/2009.
James P. (2006) Globalism, Nationalism, Tribalism: Bringing Theory Back In. Sage.
Kanbur R. (2001) Economic Policy, Distribution and Poverty: The Nature of Disagreements. World Development 29(6)1083-1094. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X01000171 02/03/2016.
Keen I. (2004) Aboriginal Economy and Society: Australia at the Threshold of Colonisation. Oxford University Press.
Kelly L. (2016) The Memory Code: The traditional Aboriginal memory technique that unlocks the secrets of Stonehenge, Easter Island and ancient monuments the world over. Allen & Unwin.
Kewley T. (1973) Social Security in Australia. Sydney University Press.
Lancaster L & Stillman D. (2005) When generations collide. Who they are. Why they clash. How to solve the generational puzzle at work. Collins Business, Harper Collins, New York.
Leary D. (1982) The Fate and Influence of John Stuart Mill’s Proposed Science of Ethology. Journal of the History of Ideas (43)153-162.
Lewis I. (1981) Social Anthropology in Perspective: The Relevance of Social Anthropology. Penguin books.
Mannheim K. (1952) The Problem of Generations, in Essays on the sociology of knowledge. Oxford University Press, London. 276-322.
Marcus G & Fischer M. (1986) Anthropology as Cultural Critique: An Experimental Moment in the Human Sciences. University of Chicago Press.
Marcus J. (2015) ‘Independent Thinking and Difficult Ideas: A Few Preliminary Thoughts on Infanticide’, Conference Proceedings: Independent Scholars Association of Australia Inc. Celebrating Independent Thought: ISAA Twenty years on. 87-98.
Marias J. (1970) Generations: a historical method. University of Alabama Press, USA.
McCrindle M. (2009) McCrindle Research. http://www.mccrindlecomau/aboutushtm 19/08/2009.
McGilchrist I. (2012) The Master and his Emissary. Yale University Press, New Haven & London.
McQueen M. (2008) The ‘new’ rules of engagement: a guide to understanding and connecting with generation Y. Nexgen Impact, Sydney.
Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research. (2016) https://melbourneinstitute.com/miaesr/publications/indicators/poverty-lines-australia.html 19/07/2016.
Mill JS. Complete Works. http://oll.libertyfund.org/people/john-stuart-mill?q=Mill# 06/10/2016. All references to Mill relate to the name or volume number of the .pdf files available at this site and their page numbers.
Miller D. (2010) J. S. Mill. Polity, Cambridge.
Mulvaney J & Kamminga J. (1999) Prehistory of Australia. Allen & Unwin, Sydney.
Nixon P. (2009) Application of engaged social research principles in inter-generational aged care workforce research. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences 4(1)77-88. https://doi.org/10.18848/1833-1882/CGP/v04i01/52791 09/03/2018.
OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2001) Poverty reduction. http://www.oecdbookshop.org/en/browse/title-detail/Poverty-Reduction/?K=5LMQCR2KGV7H 09/12/2016.
OECD. (2008) Growing unequal? Income distribution and poverty in OECD countries. http://www.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/display.asp?CID=&LANG=EN&SF1=DI&ST1=5KZRB41JLHJD 30/11/2011.
OECD. (2011) Divided we stand: Why inequality keeps rising. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/the-causes-of-growing-inequalities-in-oecd-countries_9789264119536-en 07/12/2016.
OECD. (2015) In It Together: Why Less Inequality Benefits All. http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/employment/in-it-together-why-less-inequality-benefits-all_9789264235120-en 07/12/2016.
Okasha S. (2006) Evolution and the Levels of Selection. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Osborne SP. (2010) The new public governance? Emerging perspectives on the theory and practice of public governance. Routedge, New York, USA.
Oxford Martin Commission for Future Generations. http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/ 08/12/2015.
Page E. (2006) Climate change, justice and future generations. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.
Porter N & Harris W [Editors]. (1902) Webster’s International Dictionary of the English Language, Australasian Edition. G and C Merriam Company, Springfield, Massachusetts, USA.
Rayner J. (2016) Generation Less: How Australia is Cheating the Young. Redback Quarterly: Schwartz Publishing, Melbourne.
Reynolds H. (1989) Dispossession: Black Australians and White Invaders. Allen & Unwin, Sydney.
Reynolds H. (1996) Aboriginal sovereignty: Three nations, one Australia? Allen & Unwin, Sydney.
Ruthven P. (2004) Australian Families and Work: What are the Trends telling us? Families Australia Conference Presentation, Brisbane. http://www.ibisworld.com.au/about/philruthven/ 13/05/2004.
Seedsman T. (2006) Viewing Participants as Resources for One Another, Communities and Societies: Intergenerational Solidarity Toward a Better World. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships 4(1)23-39. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1300/J194v04n01_04 21/02/2017.
South Australian Treaty discussions. http://www.statedevelopment.sa.gov.au/aboriginal-affairs/aboriginal-affairs-and-reconciliation/initiatives/treaty-discussions 19/01/2017.
Spier F. (2015) Big History and the Future of Humanity. Wiley Blackwell.
Spier F. (2017) On the pursuit of academic research across all disciplines. Journal of Big History 1(1)20-39, https://jbh.journals.villanova.edu/article/view/2242.
Steinbruner M. (2011) Comprehending the Polity: John Stuart Mill and the Utility of the Whole. ProQuest, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/bitstream/handle/10822/553108/steinbrunerMaureen.pdf?sequence=1 20/04/2017.
Stormon E. (1977) The Salvado Memoirs. University of Western Australia Press.
Strauss W & Howe N. (1991) Generations: The History of America’s Future, 1584 to 2069. William Morrow, New York.
Turchin P. (2003) Historical Dynamics: Why States Rise and Fall. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA.
Turchin P. (2006) War and Peace and War: The Rise and Fall of Empires. Plume, Penguin Group, USA.
Turchin P. (2008) Arise, 'cliodynamics'. Nature (454)34-35, https://www.nature.com/articles/454034a 21/02/2017.
Turchin P & Nefedov S. (2009) Secular Cycles. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, USA.
Uluru Statement from the Heart (2017) https://www.referendumcouncil.org.au/sites/default/files/2017-05/Uluru_Statement_From_The_Heart_0.PDF 30/05/2017.
Valletta R. (2006) The Ins and Outs of Poverty in Advanced Economies: Government Policy and Poverty Dynamics in Canada, Great Britain, Germany and the United States. Review of Income and Wealth 52(2)261-284. http://roiw.org/2006/2006-13.pdf 20/04/2017.
Victorian Treaty discussions. http://consult.aboriginalvictoria.vic.gov.au/Open-Meeting 19/01/2017.
Walsh L & Black R. (2011) In Their Own Hands: Can Young People Change Australia? ACER Press, Camberwell, Australia.
Webster’s. (2016) http://www.yourdictionary.com/ethology#websters 20/09/2016.
Weinberg R. (2012) Existence: Who Needs It? The Non-Identity Problem and Merely Possible People. Bioethics 27(9)471-484. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2012.01976.x http://hub.scrippscollege.edu/directory/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/existencewhoneedsit.pdf 20/04/2017.
Wolf C. (2003) ‘Intergenerational Justice’, in Frey RG & Wellman CH [Editors] A companion to applied ethics. Blackwell, Malden, MA, USA, 279-294.
Woollard F. (2012) Have we solved the non-identity problem? Ethical theory and moral practice 15(5)677-690, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10677-012-9359-2 21/02/2017.
Yothu Yindi. http://www.yothuyindi.com/music/treaty.html 20/09/2016.
Zemke R, Raines C & Filipczak B. (1999) Generations at Work: Managing the Clash of Veterans, Boomers, Xers, Nexters in your workplace. AMACOM, McGraw-Hill.