The Polyfurcation Century: Does the Evolution on Earth Have a Cosmological Relevance?



Special cross-disciplinary research and respective calculations done independently by scientists from various countries have shown that the 21st century is expected to be crucial for the human history. Current generations’ activities will determine what exactly the turning point will look like and what direction the subsequent evolution will go. Modern physicists and specialists in heuristics are advancing strong reasons for the conclusion that there is no absolute ban on the range of purposeful mass-energy control and therefore, mind’s cosmic-scale influence is potentially unlimited. Yet, the range of available intellectual self-control to escape destructive effects is under issue so far. How long can the technological power growth be reliably balanced by the advancing behavior-regulation qualities? From time immemorial, the relative sustainability of human communities (from primitive tribes to nations, social classes or world confessions) has been provided by the image of a common enemy. Inter-group conflicts have been abridging in-group violence and with it, have been setting the vector for the construction of life’s meanings. Yet, the current level of technological development completed by blurring lines both between war and non-war technologies and between the conditions of peace and war has made this psychological inertia suicidal. So the problem of life’s meanings is becoming the nucleus of the 21st century global problems: Will the human mind prove ready to develop strategic meanings beyond religious or quasi-religious ideologies which are always built on the “them-us” mental matrix? Insights of great philosophers and prophets, as well as special socio-psychological experiments and some crucial episodes in political history have demonstrated that besides the image of a common enemy, both human solidarity and strategic meanings can be built on the image of a common cause (not aimed at an enemy agent), although the experience of assimilating this kind of construct by the mass consciousness is scanty. Instead, historical evidence is abundant showing that after long periods without real or potential wars, life’s meanings dilute and the masses feel nostalgia for new demons. Actually, we observe an intensification of this trend in many regions of our planet accompanied by a growing instability in global geopolitics. An international educational program designed to develop cosmopolitan worldviews free from group-versus-group attachments is suggested in the paper.




Taleb N.N. (2016) The “Long Peace” Is a Statistical Illusion.

Merton R.K. Social Theory and Social Structure. N.Y.: Free Press, 1968.

Nazaretyan A.P. (2017) Non-Linear Futures: Mega-History, Complexity Theory, Anthropology & Psychology for Global Forecasting. 4th ed. Moscow: Argamak-Media (In Russian).

Jantsch E. (1980) The Self-Organizing Universe. Scientific and Human Implications of the Emerging Paradigm of Evolution. N.Y.: Pergamon Press.

Moiseev N.N. (1991) Universal Evolutionism: Position and Corollaries // Problems of Philosophy, #3: 3-28 (In Russian).

Nazaretyan A.P. (1991) Intelligence in the Universe: Origin, Formation and Perspectives. Moscow: Nedra. (In Russian).

Christian D. (1991) The Case for ‘Big History’ // Journal of World History 2 (2): 223–238.

Christian D. (2004) Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. Berkeley: Calif.: Univ. of California Press.

Chaisson E.J. (2005) Cosmic Evolution: Synthesizing Evolution, Energy, and Ethics // Phylosophy & Science (Russian Philosophical Journal), ?5: 92-105.

Nazaretyan A.P. (2005) Western and Russian Traditions in Big History: A Philosophical Insight // Journal for General Philosophy of Science, 36: 63-80.

Spier F. (1996) The Structure of Big history. From the Big Bang until Today. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

From Big Bang to Global Civilization: A Big History Anthology (2015/2017). In 3 volumes. L.E. Grinin, A.V. Korotayev, B.H. Rodrigue (eds.). Delhi: Primus Books.

Universal Studies and the Modern World. Becoming Global and Cosmic Humanity. Osamu Nakanishi (chief ed.). Yokohama: Institute for Global and Cosmic Peace, 2017.

Rozanov A.Yu. (2009) Life Conditions on early Earth After 4.0 Billion Years Ago // Problems of the Origins of Life. Moscow: Institute of Paleontology: 185-201 (In Russian).

Tyson N.DeGrass, Goldsmith D. Origins. Fourteen Billion Years of Cosmic Evolution. N-Y, London: W.W. Norton & Co, 2014.

Panov A.D. (2005) Scaling Law of the Biological Evolution and the Hypothesis of the Self-Consistent Galaxy Origin of Life // Advances in Space Research, 36: 220–225.

Snooks G.D. The Dynamic Society. Exploring the Sources of Global Change. London and N.Y.: Routledge, 1996. 18. Panov A.D. Completion of the Planetary Cycle of Evolution? // Philosophy & Science, 2005, #3-4: 42-49, 31-50 (In Russian). 19. Kurzweil R. (2005) The Singularity Is Near: When Humans Transcend Biology. N.Y.: PB.

Singularity Hypotheses. A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment (2012) A.H. Eden, J.H. Moor, J.H. Søraker and E. Steinhart (eds.). Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Nazaretyan A.P. (2016) Non-Linear Futures: The “Mysterious Singularity” in View of Mega-History // Between Past Orthodoxies and the Future of Globalization. Contemporary Philosophical Problems. Boston: Brill-Rodopi: 171-191.

Weinberg S. (1993) The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe. N.Y.: Basic Books. 23. Deutsch D. (1997) The Fabric of Reality. London, N.Y.: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press.

Rees M. (1997) Before the Beginning. Our Universe and Others. N.Y.: Helix Books.

Davies P. (2004) The Cosmic Blueprint: New Discoveries in Nature’s Creative Ability to Order the Universe. Philadelphia & London: Templeton Press.

Smolin Lee (2014) The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time: A Proposal in Natural Philosophy. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Duncker K. (1935) Erster Teil Struktur und Dynamik von Lösungsprozessen Seite Kap // Zur Psychologie des produktiven. Denkens. Berlin: Springer.

Kaku M. (2014) The Future of the Mind: The Scientific Quest to Understand, Enhance, and Empower the Mind. N.Y. etc.: Doubleday.

Elias N. (1939/2000) The Civilizing Process: Sociogenetic and Psychogenetic Investigations. Rev. ed. Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell.

Gurr T.R. (1981) Historical Trends in Violent Crime: A Critical Review of the Evidence // Crime & Justice: An annual Review of Research, 3(29): 295-353.

Cockburn J.S. (1991) Patterns of Violence in English Society: Homicide in Kent, 1560-1985 // Past & Present, 130: 70-106.

Keeley L.H. (1996) War before Civilization. The Myth of the Peaceful Savage. N.Y.: Oxford University Press.

Eisner M. (2003) Long-Term Historical Trend in Violent Crime // Crime & Justice, 30: 83-142.

Nazaretyan A.P. (2010) Virtualization of Social Violence: A Sign of Our Époque? // Societal and Political Psychology International Review, 1, #2: 23-36.

Nazaretyan A.P. (2009) Technology, Psychology and Catastrophes: On the Evolution of Non-Violence in Human History // Social Evolution & History, VIII, #2, p.102-132.

Pinker S. (2011) The Better Angels of Our Nature. The Decline of Violence in History and Its Causes. N.Y.: Viking Penguin.

Joy B. (2000) Why the Future Doesn’t Need Us? // Wired, April: 238-262.

Rees M.J. (2003) Our Final Century: Will the Human Race Survive the Twenty First Century? N.Y.: Basic Books.

Krug E.G., Dahlberg L.L., Mercy J.A., Zwi A.B. and Lozano R. Eds. (2002) World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Global Study of Homicide. Trends, Contexts, Data. UNODC, 2011.

Mosionzhnik L.A. (2012) Technology of Historical Myth. Saint Petersburg: Nestor-Istoria. (In Russian).

Sherif M., Harvey O.J., White B.J., Hood W.R. and Sherif C.W. (1961) Intergroup Conflict and Cooperation: The Robber’s Cave Experiment. Norma, Oklahoma: Univ. of Oklahoma Press.